April 29th - Showa Day
Showa day honors the Showa era, during the reign of Hirohito. Emperor Hirohito had the longest reign of any Japanese Emperor from 1926 to 1989. This day is meant to reflect on the events during the Showa period including the events of World War II and the removing of Imperial rule. Most Japanese people take off work on this holiday.
May 3rd - Constitution Memorial Day
This day is meant to celebrate the Japanese constitution and the emergence of democracy in the country. Like most holidays celebrated during Golden Week, Constitution Memorial Day is commemorated with large festivals throughout the nation.
May 4th - Greenery Day
The name of the holiday should give you hint on what it celebrates, nature! This holiday is about giving thanks to the earth and being thankful for all it has given us! Golden Week is also the beginning of rice planting season and is when green tea begins to be harvested. During this day many people try to get their hands on the freshest green tea that is harvested on this day.
May 5th - Children's Day
Golden Week ends with Children's Day. This holiday is historically meant to celebrate boys but has been extended to all children. You'll know when Children's Day is being celebrated because they'll be a ton of carp shaped flags flying everywhere. Families also display samurai dolls symbolizing strength and success. This day is also meant to express gratitude towards mothers. Although, this holiday has been changed to include girls it's still symbolically for sons, there is another holiday called "doll festival" that is meant to celebrate girls.
If you plan on visiting Japan during the warmer months try to make it in time for Golden Week. There will be a ton of things to do around Japan, so you don't have to go through the burden of planning everything yourself. Have fun! :)