Beer, sake and other drinks
You'll find these all over the place - vending machines on the street selling beer, chu-hi and other alcoholic beverages. The prices are a touch more expensive than what you would find at a convenience store or supermarket, but 200-280 yen is about the equivalent of $2-3 US dollars (give or take a bit depending on the exchange rate) so it's not super expensive. Plus - some of those cans in there are a solid half liter of beer!
You can also find other alcoholic drinks dispensed from vending machines. The picture below was taken at Echigo Yuzawa Station in Niigata Prefecture (perfect if you're headed here in the snowy months and you'll be passing through that area). You pay 500 yen, and you're given 5 tokens to get 5 cups of sake, umeshu, or even wine at these little vending machines. A bit of fun when you're traveling!
It makes sense that in a country where rice is such a loved and consumed food that rice vending machines would exist! I've seen rice vending machines like this in a number of places (in fact, they have one right outside the local hardware store in the town I live right now!)
Summers in Japan can feel a little relentless, so it's nice when you stumble across an ice cream vending machine. This one below was at my local mall, but I've seen them at a lot of places. They're reasonably priced and tasty, too!
Small toys (Gashapon)
Peckish and need a snack? Some places even have cup noodle vending machines, if you're not by a convenience store. I've also seen vending machines selling other hot foods like french fries!
You'll never be caught out on your travels throughout Japan - you're bound to find something to eat, drink, or keep as a souvenir with ease at these vending machines (they're even at the top of Mt. Fuji!)